Nepal is a small yet geographically highly diverse country located in South Asia. According to the National Biodiversity Strategy, 2002 Nepal encompasses 118 different types of ecosystems.
More than 23 percent of Nepal’s total area declared as protected. That includes 12 national parks, one wildlife reserve, one hunting reserve and six conservation areas. Each national park has its own buffer zone to facilitate human-wildlife co-existence.
- Chitwan National Park
At a distance of 120 Kms from south-west of Kathmandu. Chitwan National Park is one of the ancient Nepal’s wildlife reserve. There is most threatened asian species of One-Horned Rhinoceros and the Royal Bengal Tiger.
Across an area of 932 sq. km the park is also home for wildlife like leopard, rhesus monkey, bison, wild boar, deer, sloth bear and about 450 species of birds.
- Parsa Wildlife Reserve
Near to the famous Chitwan National Park. This reserve has elephant, tiger, leopard, sloth bear, gaur, blue bull, wild dog, deer, sambar, chital, hog, barking deer, langur monkeys, striped hyenas, ratels, palm civets and jungle cats in their natural habitat.
Extents over a 499 sq. kms area, this enchanting park allure visitors with wonderful Sal trees with few patches of sissoo vegetation and variety of birds and snakes. Some of the common ones are: giant hornbill, peafowl, red jungle fowl, flycatchers, king cobra, common cobra, krait, rat snake and the python.
- Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve
Nestled in the southern part of west Nepal, its a popular wildlife reserve. Stretches over an area of 305 sq. km of affluent greenery. The park boasts for a diversity of around 24 animal species and 350 bird species.
180 rearing species of birds, 14 species of fish, Schaaf (1978b), 10 species of Ectoparasites and biting flies. This park offer jungle safari, on the eastern side by the Chaudhar River and to the north by a forest belt and cultivation.
- Sagarmatha National Park
This wildlife Sanctuary situated at the highest height in the world (3000 meters i.e. 9700 feet). Above sea level features the topmost peak of Asia Mount Everest. Together with other famous peaks such as Lhotse, Thamerku, Pumori, Ama Dablam, Cho Oyu, Kwangde, Kangtaiga and Gyachyung Kang that allure tourists from all over the world.
Its rocky landscape with deep valleys, snows and huge rocks houses variety of wildlife, more than 118 species of birds and 26 species of butterflies reside in the park. Threatened species of snow leopard, red panda and also two varieties of sensational pheasants there- the crimson-horned and the impeyan. Nepal’s national bird in their natural habitat. The park listed in UNESCO world heritage site.
- Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal’s biggest prevented area cover around 7,629 sq. km area in the Annapurna range of the Himalayas. One of the best trekking areas in the world, as it envelopes the area of Manang, Mustang, Kaski, Myagdi as well as Lamjung districts.
The Annapurna also famous for around 100 varied kinds of animals. Including rare snow leopards and blue sheep, 478 species of birds, multi-colored Impeyan, Koklas and blood pheasants, 39 species of reptiles, 22 species of amphibians and last but not least various species of orchids and rhododendron.
- Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA)
The Area is one of the 200 ‘Global Eco Regions’ by world wildlife fund houses. Almost 2500 species of flowering plant and many threatened wildlife species there.
202 species of different birds including Impeyan pheasant, red-billed, blue magpie, shy drogue, 30 varieties of rhododendron species and 69 varieties of orchid. There is the threatened species of snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, musk deer, red panda, blue sheep and rhesus macaw in their natural habitat.
- Langtang National Park
This is first Himalayan national park of Nepal. It has many alluring features which attract people from all over the world. Stretches over an area of 1710 Sq. Km. The park has varied vegetation and wildlife. Also common birds and animals seen here.
Like wild dog, red panda, pica, muntjac, musk deer, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan Tahr, ghoral, serow, rhesus monkey, common Langur, snow leopard, tragopan, impeyan and pheasants (Kalij).
Other than flora and fauna, the park is popular for Gosainkunda Lake, Dorje Lakpa Range and summit of Langtang lirung. Thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit the lake every year, especially during the Janai purnima festival which comes in every August.